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推动全球可持续发展 迈向绿色低碳未来

2013-06-25 10:35:19 作者:CN_SZLED_2012HJ 来源:能源世界-中国建筑节能网 浏览次数:0

【导读】:日前,能源世界-中国建筑节能网对阿联酋阿布达比的可再生能源公司Masdar可持续能源部门的主管、阿联酋阿布达比的可再生能源公司Masdar可持续能源部门主管——Al-Hosany博士进行了独家专访。 内容涉及扎耶德未来能源奖,可再生能源与建筑的一体化发展可在能能源在全球发展应用过程中面临的问题和挑战,以及如何携手共建低碳城区等行业关注的热点问题。

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图为 Al-Hosany博士接受媒体的采访

Al-Hosany博士简介:Al-Hosany博士是阿联酋阿布达比的可再生能源公司Masdar可持续能源部门的主管。曾先后经手完成了“发展一个世界上最能可持续发展的城市” 、“启动一个世界上最大聚光太阳能发电厂”等项目。除了在Masdar所担任的职务外,Al-Hosany博士也是扎耶德未来能源奖的主管。该奖项在可再生能源和可持续发展领域每年奖金达400万美元。

在中东地区,可持续发展仍然是一个相对较新的概念。Al-Hosany博士是这一区域运动的先锋。作为马斯达尔可持续发展公司的主管,她是商业,社会和环境可持续发展方面的专家。日前,能源世界-中国建筑节能网针对扎耶德未来能源奖,可再生能源与建筑的一体化发展可在能能源在全球发展应用过程中面临的问题和挑战,以及如何携手共建低碳城区等行业关注的热点问题,对Al-Hosany博士进行了独家专访。

能源世界:作为新能源与可持续发展领域最具影响的奖项,扎耶德未来能源奖获得了全球范围内的广泛认可,该奖项召集全球的创新者和思想领袖,讨论行业目前面临的相关话题。那么,针对整合节能和可再生能源的问题,您认为应如何处理可再生能源和节能之间的协作关系,以及如何实现由联合国发起的“人人享有可持续能源”的倡议。

Al-Hosany博士:扎耶德未来能源奖每年有400万的奖金,在全球范围内奖励为可再生能源和可持续发展做出的技术创新和解决方案。该奖项体现了已故的开国元勋——阿联酋谢赫•扎耶德•本•苏丹•阿勒纳哈扬的远见。他本人为阿联酋的经济、环境和社会的可持续发展奠定了基础。该奖项由马斯达尔代替阿布扎比政府进行管理,目的是奖励在可持续发展及可再生能源领域的成果和创新,同时也起到教育和激励下一代的作用。

扎耶德未来能源奖分为五个门类:大型企业类、中小型企业类(150万美元)、非政府组织类(150万美元)、个人终身成就奖(50万美元)以及全球高中类(50万美元)奖项(这50万美元会被平均分给来自美洲、欧洲、非洲、亚洲和大洋洲的五所学校)。

截至目前,扎耶德未来能源奖已经成功吸引几家中国大企业参与申奖,中国企业——比迪亚已经荣膺2013年大型企业类奖项。我们希望中国的中小企业、非政府组织、个人、学校,以及大型企业更多地参与进来,这样他们就可能会得到来自扎耶德未来能源奖的奖励以及全球的认可。

在“2012人人享有可持续能源国际年”的引导下,联合国秘书长潘基文提出了“人人享有可持续能源”的行动号召。尽管实现这项号召所提出的目标将会十分棘手,处于通向成功的正确轨迹上。作为新晋成立的咨询理事会的成员之一,马斯达尔(Masdar)的CEO——Sultan Ahmed Al Jaber博士自该项号召提出伊始就全面参与。事实上,潘基文先生正是在于阿布扎比举行的“2012世界未来能源峰会”上提出的这一号召。 “人人享有可持续能源”的行动号召将致力于在2030以前普及使用新时代能源服务,加倍提高能源效率,以及使可再生能源在全球能源结构所占比重加倍。 这些都将是我们未来所面对的真正挑战。我们坚信,脚踏实地的行动,辅之精卫填海般的投入态度终将帮助我们征服这些目标。

在阿联酋,我们认为在能源方面最好的“开源”方式莫过于“节流”。 能源的有效利用和可再生能源需双管齐下是将此付诸行动的不二法门。

在海湾地区,阿联酋在可再生能源的研究、开发及使用等方面均处领先地位。作为阿布扎比致力可再生能源的产物,马斯达尔(Masdar)已经开始着手于数项商业规模的可再生能源项目。

马斯达尔城(Masdar City)是世界上屈指可数的可持续低碳在建城市。这座城市被赋予了形形色色的清洁能源科技,同时承担着特别经济区的使命,尽地主之谊吸引着意图在中东地区将新能源技术商业化的公司们。整座城市完全由可再生能源供能,同时各式尖端被动智能设计也成功削减了对于能源的需求。

在马斯达尔城(Masdar City),我们有一座10兆瓦级别的光伏发电场,它足以为Masdar Institute和该城市所有在建项目和办公室供能。这座Masdar研究生院致力于开发先进的可再生能源及可持续科技。

最近我们还启动了代号为SHAMS1的世界最大单机组聚焦式太阳能发电项目。这座位于阿布扎比西部沙漠中的100兆瓦级别的能源工程将为超过两万个家庭提供可再生能源,同时避免了超过每年175000吨二氧化碳排放量。

SHAMS1 项目在能源需求峰值阶段投入使用可谓雪中送炭。对于阿联酋这意味着可以适当削减为“削峰”所备用的传统发电机,这些发电机通常价值不菲并且长时间处于闲置状态。

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图为位于阿布扎布100MW CSP的发电厂 Shams1

阿联酋也会通过对空调机实行更严格的新能源标准来限制能源消耗。

通过Estidama(阿拉伯语可持续发展性的意思)这一行动号召,采纳国际标准,阿联酋将强制要求政府机关建筑及商务写字楼遵从并施行可持续发展性标准。与2008年启动Estidama行动号召的是阿布扎比城市规划委员会(UPC),时至今日所有政府机关建筑及商务写字楼均必须遵从阿布扎比的“Estidama绿色建筑标准。”

阿布扎比同时发布了全面的《建筑法典》,囊括了所有位于阿布扎比的在建建筑项目。《建筑法典》特别着重于建筑的可持续发展性和对于能源的节约达到Estidama行动号召的要求。对于阿布扎比的居民来说,该行政文件将确保他们受益于更好、更安全、更绿色、更经济以及更有效利用能源的建筑。同时,这也将全面提高阿布扎比施工建设业的行业标准。

能源世界:可持续发展在中东地区仍然是一个相对较新的概念,作为这一区域运动的先锋和专家,请您谈一谈为什么一个石油资源丰富的国家会大量投资在可再生能源方面,以及区域可持续发展面临的多重挑战。

Al-Hosany博士:诚然,中东一些国家的经济建设始于能源开发,而后出口到世界的其他国家,但我们仍然将投资于清洁和可再生能源视为我们能源技术的自然延伸。阿联酋认识到,利用我们的能源技术来发展可再生能源产业,可以维护我们在能源方面的领导地位。

通过提前规划,并且通过整合更清洁更可持续发展的动力源使之多样化,我们能更好地满足日益增长的能源需求。我们已准备好这样做。中东和北非估计容纳近50%的世界可再生能源的潜力,其中很大部分是太阳能。当然,中东地区也有能力开发陆上和海上风电。

我们认为,在可再生能源领域投资是支持经济增长和多样化,自然而然的步骤。清洁能源是一个快速增长的行业(2011年的投资超过250亿美元),这对于确保我们经济的长期增长是一个可行的选择。

在阿联酋马斯达尔阿布扎比,可再生能源计划已经进行了一些令人兴奋的可再生能源项目,目前已经为全世界提供了1000兆瓦时的电量,我们能够看到能源既是经济的驱动体,但同时也是提高获取能源的必经之路,对一些较为贫穷需要经济增长的国家也是一种鼓励。

同时,我们也重点关注在教育和发展我们的巨大的人力资源上,通过我们的人才、知识、技能已经能力可以帮助我们领导新能源经济。在马斯达尔(Masdar),我们已经建立了马斯达尔科学技术学院(Masdar Institute of Science and Technology),这是一个独一无二的学院,研究生致力于研究可再生能源和清洁技术,并且我们已经和麻省理工学院建立了合作伙伴关系。

在阿联酋,可持续发展并不时一个新的概念。事实上,阿联酋的承诺领导投资可持续发展的想法源于以故的阿联酋开国元勋扎耶德,他是一个真正提倡可持细发展的倡导者。通过他自己的生活经历,他从小就理解我们国家的生存和我们的人民很大程度上依赖于我们对于多样化调整的能力,我们的多元化的能源能够确保国家可以享有多种不同的收入来源。

能源世界:建筑能耗中,热水、采暖和空调的能耗占据了很大比重。随着光热产业的不断成熟,对太阳能采暖的可行性和经济性的关注度日益增加,请您谈谈太阳能采暖极大地推动光热产业发展的同时,如何从技术层面实现与建筑的一体化发展。

Al-Hosany博士:在阿联酋利用太阳能来提供空调的动力是一种可行的选项。2010年9月,我们在马斯达尔发起了一个通过太阳能降温的试点项目。该项目结合了多项先进技术相结合,目标是创造一个高效的太阳能热空调系统。

制冷设备可以服务1700平方米的办公室、会议室,以及马斯达尔其他敞开式的办公区域。热水温度约80℃~90℃,由两个不同的太阳能集热器技术产生泵16立方米压力容器作为热缓冲存储。一个单独的循环泵提供热水循环水的热水驱动的双效溴化锂吸收式制冷机产生的冷冻水。

该项目自推出以来,可以连续免维护运行,甚至在比较麻烦的夏季。

能源世界:绿色建筑作为适应人类未来宜居的需要,代表了当前建筑发展的方向,而碳中和城市建设则是与子孙后代共享可持续发展成果的最佳方案。2013年4月,在北京召开的“第九届国际绿色建筑与建筑节能大会”上,“如何迈向碳中和城市”成为一个非常热门,也非常具有挑战性的议题。Masdar也一直致力于开发一些世界上最大最创新的能源项目,到目前为止,针对中国可再生能源利用的现状,您认为有那些经验值得中国借鉴?

Al-Hosany博士:马斯达尔城(Masdar City)是一个充满雄心壮志的项目,尽管沙漠环境恶劣,但我们仍致力于打造可持续发展的低碳城市。在创建马斯达尔城的过程中,我们学到了很多东西。虽然中国可能阿联酋的气候及其他条件并不相同,但是我想我们最值得学习的地方就是大胆投资于新技术。现在我们已经创造出前所未有的城市,一座完全由可再生能源供电的城市。

马斯达尔城结合了无源和智能化的设计,充分优化利用沙漠中的可用资源。对于如何通过可持续的设计和开发,使得能够用更少的资源使用率,容纳更密集的人口,这是最清晰的例证。迄今为止,我们降低了56%的建筑能源需求和54%的饮用水需求。

阿联酋的夏天能达到50℃以上。然而,纳入反映热和可持续发展的设计原则的绿色和再生材料,使得马斯达尔城居民享受到明显较凉爽的环境 比阿布扎比市中心足足低20℃的温度。全市有天然的阴凉处,狭窄的走廊和一个巨大的风电塔筒在城市中心,来捕捉穿过城市的盛行风和冷空气。

马斯达尔城的兴建还是一个紧随需求的榜样。它是第一个在中东发展,但是能够吸引到本土以及国际上意欲投资在本地区不断发展的清洁能源和可再生能源市场的公司和组织。

作为一个特殊的经济区,为企业提供有吸引力的商业利益,如100%的外国所有权、零所得税和公司税、无货币限制。今天,西门子、GE、全球绿色增长研究所和国际可再生能源署均位于马斯达尔城。

能源世界:随着阿联酋“马斯达尔行动计划”的实施,Masdar未来是否打算在中国开发一些创新型能源项目,在中国打造无碳城市?

Al-Hosany博士:在过去的7年中,马斯达尔(Masdar)已经通过其在全世界的创新清洁能源技术的发展,证明了它在这个领域的资深经验。我们在全世界有很多大大小小的可再生能源项目,包括在伦敦、非洲、西班牙、舌赛尔和毛里塔尼亚等等。

与不同的国际伙伴合作,一直都是我们成功的基础。这使得我们能够与合作伙伴一道分享更多更好的实践经验,并学习和发展技巧和专业性。我们渴望跟发展阶段的伙伴展开合作,并期待与中国的合作。

中国的可再生能源市场保持着令人兴奋的增长势头,尤其是太阳能光伏产业。中国政府一直努力通过投资和有利于产业发展的政策,鼓励清洁能源领域的发展。

CHINAGB:The Zayed Future Energy Prize has been recognized worldwide as one of the most influential awards in new energy and sustainable development. ZFEP calls on opinion leaders and innovators to discuss current topics relevant to the energy industry. With respect to integrating plans for energy-saving and renewable energy, how do you think we should deal with the relationship between the two? How can we achieve the Sustainable Energy for All initiatives launched by the United Nations?

Dr.Al-Hosany:The Zayed Future Energy Prize is an annual US$ 4 million prize that recognizes excellence in renewable energy and sustainability and rewards innovative technologies and solutions that will help us solve the energy challenge – across the globe. The Prize embodies the vision of the late founding father of the UAE, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan who laid the foundation for the economic, environmental and social sustainability of the UAE. The Prize is managed by Masdar, on behalf of the Abu Dhabi government and seeks to award achievements and innovation in the fields of sustainability and renewable energy, as well as to educate and inspire future generations.

The Prize rewards five categories: a recognition award for Large corporations, 1.5 million dollars to a Small and Medium Enterprise, 1.5 million dollars to a Non-Governmental Organization, 0.5 million dollars as a Lifetime Achievement Award and another half a million dollars to Global High Schools – which is distributed between five schools from five different regions (the Americas, Europe, Africa, Asia and Oceania).

We have already attracted several companies in China to submit for the Prize and BYD China was selected as a finalist for the 2013 edition in the Large Corporation category. We would like to encourage increased participation from China – SMEs, NGOS, individuals, schools and large corporations – so they can benefit from the award as well as the global recognition that the Zayed Future Energy Prize offers.

The Sustainable Energy For All Initiative is an important call to action by the UN Secretary General Ban Ki Moon, that was launched to coincide with the designation of 2012 as the International Year of Sustainable Energy for All. Achieving the goals of the initiative is a challenging task – but we believe we are on the right path towards success. Our CEO at Masdar, His Excellency, Dr Sultan Ahmed Al Jaber is a member of the newly established Advisory Board and has been involved in the initiative since its inception. In fact, the Secretary General launched the Sustainable Energy For All Initiative from Abu Dhabi at the 2012 World Future Energy Summit.

The Sustainable Energy For All Initiative seeks to ensure universal access to modern energy services, double the rate of improvement in energy efficiency and double the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix, all by 2030. These are the true challenges of our future – and we believe, that with the right level of commitment – and the necessary action – this is an achievable target.

In the UAE, we believe the best way to create power is to save energy. Energy efficiency and renewable energy work hand in hand - this is not an either or dynamic. The UAE is leading the Gulf in renewable-energy research, development and deployment. Masdar, Abu Dhabi’s renewable energy initiative, has undertaken several commercial-scale renewable energy projects.

Masdar City is one of the most sustainable low-carbon urban developments in the world. It has been designed as a clean tech cluster and special economic zone, to attract and host companies that are looking into commercializing new energy technologies in the Middle East. The city is completely powered by renewable energy and combines state-of-the-art passive and intelligent design to reduce energy demand.

On-site at Masdar City, we have a 10MW photovoltaic farm that provides all the power for Masdar Institute - an independent, graduate-level Research University dedicated to advancing renewable energy and sustainable technologies as well as for Masdar City’s construction and the corporate offices for Masdar.

We have also recently launched Shams 1, the largest single-unit concentrated solar power project in the world. Located in the desert of Abu Dhabi’s Western Region, the 100-megawatt project delivers renewable power to more than 20,000 homes and displaces more than 175,000 tons of CO2 per year.

Additionally, Shams 1 provides energy when we need it most, during peak demand. And as a result, the UAE is able to reduce its need for “peak shaving” generators, which are expensive and idle most of the year.

The UAE is also taking steps to reduce energy consumption by enacting tough, new energy-efficiency standards for air conditioners.

The UAE has also set mandatory sustainability standards for government and commercial buildings through the Estidama initiative (Arabic for sustainability) that adapts international standards to our local harsh climate. Estidama was launched by the Abu Dhabi Urban Planning Council (UPC) in 2008 and today all government and commercial buildings have to comply with Abu Dhabi's Estidama green building standards.

Abu Dhabi has also issued a comprehensive Building Code that covers the construction of all new buildings in Abu Dhabi. The Building Code focuses especially on sustainability and energy-conservation and is closely aligned with the Estidama Initiative. The Building Code ensures that all Abu Dhabi residents will benefit from better, safer, greener, economical and more energy efficient buildings and also raises professional standards across the construction industry in Abu Dhabi.

CHINAGB:As we all know, sustainable development in the Middle East is still a relatively new concept. As a pioneer and expert of sustainable development, can you talk about why oil-rich countries would like to invest in the field of renewable energy? What are some of the many challenges presented for regional sustainable development?

Dr.Al-Hosany:While the economies of several countries in the Middle East were historically built on the discovery and subsequently, the export of oil to the rest of the world, we see investing in clean, renewable energy as a natural extension of our energy expertise.

The UAE recognizes that by leveraging hydrocarbon resources and capitalizing on our energy expertise to develop a renewable energy industry, we can help protect our energy leadership.

Through planning ahead and diversifying the energy mix by integrating cleaner, more sustainable sources of power, we believe we can be better equipped to meet rising energy demand.

And we are well placed to do so. The Middle East and North Africa is estimated to hold nearly half of the world's renewable energy potential. A large majority of that resource is solar energy, and the region also has capabilities to develop onshore and offshore wind power.

We also see investing in renewable energy as a natural step forward to support the growth and diversification of our economy. Clean energy is a fast-growing industry - with over US$ 250 billion invested in 2011 - making it a viable option for securing our economy for long-term growth.

In the UAE, Masdar, Abu Dhabi’s renewable energy initiative, has undertaken several exciting renewable energy projects that currently produce close to 1GWh of energy around the world. We look at energy as both an economic driver, but also as a pathway to improve energy access, and encourage development by poorer nations who need a boost. We are also focusing heavily on education and developing our tremendous human capital to empower our most important resource -- our people -- with the knowledge, skills and abilities to lead in the new energy economy. At Masdar, we have established the Masdar Institute of Science and Technology a one-of-a-kind graduate research university dedicated to renewable energy and clean technology, in partnership with MIT.

Sustainable development in the UAE is not a new concept at all. In fact, the commitment of the UAE leadership to invest in sustainable development stems from a legacy left behind by the late founding father of the United Arab Emirates – Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan; who was a true advocate of sustainable development. Through his own life experiences – he understood from a very early age that the survival of our nation and its people relies heavily on our ability to diversify our economy and our energy mix and to ensure that the nation enjoys multiple sources of income.

CHINAGB:Hot water, heating and air conditioning account for a large proportion of energy consumed in the construction of buildings. The FAST growth of the solar thermal industry has led to concerns about its feasibility. Since solar heating directly supports the solar thermal industry, how do you think we can realize, from a technical perspective, the integrated development of solar power with building construction?

Dr.Al-Hosany:Harnessing solar power is a viable option to power air conditioning for us the UAE. At Masdar, we have developed a pilot project on solar thermal for cooling purposes that was initiated in September 2010. The project combines several advanced technologies are combined with the goal of creating a highly efficient solar thermal air conditioning system.

The chiller unit currently serves 1700m2 of offices, meeting rooms and open place office space within Masdar. Hot water, at approximately 80 - 90°C, produced by two different solar collector technologies is pumped to 16m3 pressure vessel that acts as a thermal buffer storage. A separate hot-water cycle with circulation pump delivers the water to a hot-water driven double effect absorption chiller to produce the chilled water.

The project has been in continuous maintenance-free operation, including during the demanding summer months, since its launch.

CHINAGB:As it can meet sustainability demands, green building represents new building trends. The best practice of sustainable development is carbon neutral city construction. Recently, the Ninth International Green Building and Energy Saving Conference was held in Beijing. The question of how to build a carbon neutral city has become a heated and challenging topic. Masdar has also been committed to the development of some of the world's largest and most innovative energy projects so far. With respect to China’s current use of renewable energy, what do you think China can learn from Masdar’s experience?

Dr.Al-Hosany:Masdar City is an ambitious project to build a low carbon city that is sustainable, despite the harsh desert environment. We have learned a lot through the process of creating Masdar City. While China may not share the same climate and conditions as the UAE, the biggest learning has been that in being bold and investing in new technologies - we have been able to create an unprecedented city that is is powered entirely by renewable energy. Masdar City combines passive and intelligent design to make optimum use of the resources available us to in the desert. It is a clear example of how sustainable design and development can accommodate for denser populations with less resource usage. To date, our buildings reduce energy demand by 56 per cent and potable water demand by 54 per cent. The UAE summers can reach upwards of 50 degrees centigrade. However, by incorporating green and recycled materials that reflect heat and sustainable design principles Masdar City residents enjoy a noticeably cooler environment - up to 20 degrees cooler that in downtown Abu Dhabi. The city has natural shade, narrow corridors and a giant wind tower in the centre that captures prevailing winds, funneling cool air through the city.

Masdar City is also an example of a project built to demand. It is a first-if-its kind development in the Middle East that has attracted international and home-grown companies and organizations looking to invest in the region’s growing clean technology and renewable energy market.

As a special economic zone it provides companies, attractive business benefits such as 100 per cent foreign ownership, zero income and corporate taxes, and no currency restrictions. Today, Siemens, GE, the Global Green Growth Institute, and the International Renewable Energy Agency are all located at Masdar City.

CHINAGB:With the implementation of the United Arab Emirate’s Masdar Plan, does Masdar plan to develop innovative energy projects to build a carbon-free city in China?

Dr.Al-Hosany:In seven years, Masdar has demonstrated deep expertise in the development of innovative clean energy technologies in its projects across the world. We have worked on large and small scale renewable energy projects across the world – London, Africa, Spain, the Seychelles and Mauritania to name a few.

Working in collaboration with various international partners has been fundamental to our success. It has allowed us to share best practice and learn and develop skills and expertise. We would always welcome the opportunity of developing partnerships and collaborations with China.

China is an extremely exciting growth market for renewable energy, especially in solar PV sector. The Chinese government has been active in encouraging the development of the clean energy sector through investment and pro-business policies.

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